School of Molecular Sciences

Hartmann Human Lactation Research Group

Postgraduate students

  • Alexandra George
  • Anna Cannon
  • Hazel Gardner
  • Viviane Coentro
  • Yahya Almutawif

Lactation is the final phase of the reproductive cycle in mammals and is essential for optimum growth and development of the young mammals during early postnatal life.

In women, breastfeeding is the natural source of nourishment for babies. A considerable body of research in human lactation has focused on gaining an understanding of how breastmilk is uniquely adapted to the digestive, metabolic, developmental and pathogen defence requirements of the infant.

As a result of this research the World Health Organization (WHO) recently recommended that infants should be exclusively breastfed up to the age of six months. The lactating breast uses about 30% of the mother’s daily energy requirements and, indeed, has a higher energy requirement than the brain.

However, the clinical support for human lactation is almost entirely experience-based, and unlike all other significant organs in the body, there is no medical speciality for referral for the assessment of the function of the lactating mammary gland.


The Hartmann Human Lactation Research Group aims to gain a greater understanding of the synthesis and secretion of breastmilk as well as the mechanisms of removal of milk from the breast by either the suckling infant or by expression with an electric breast pump. The understanding of these mechanisms will facilitate successful breastfeeding by providing an evidence base for the clinical management of human lactation.

To achieve this objective requires a fundamental understanding of the physiology and biochemistry of:

  • breast growth and development
  • milk synthesis
  • milk secretion
  • milk ejection
  • mechanics of breastfeeding
  • infant appetite


Human milk is diverse fluid containing macronutrients, vitamins, hormones and live cells uniquely tailored for the human infant.  A myriad of health benefits, both short and long term are conferred to both the mother and infant via human milk and lactation.  Further early nutrition is implicated in the "Developmental origins of Health and Disease" (DoHaD).  This large research group combines a number of modalities including biochemistry, metabolomics, molecular biology, physiological measurements and ultrasound imaging to understand milk synthesis, milk removal from the breast, the effect of milk composition on both term and preterm infant gastric emptying, breastfeeding behaviour, appetite control and body composition.

Further information about the group can be found on our website 

Online papers

Breast milk plays a key role in infant programming and has significant effects on both short and long term health of infants.